What is the basis for life at mid ocean ridges?Asked by: Rosalinda Morissette
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The mid-ocean ridge system hosts one of the most complex and hostile environments on our planet. Life here exists without sunlight and is supported by vented hydrothermal fluids driven by heat from magma chambers.View full answer
Correspondingly, Is there life in mid-ocean ridges?
“The ridge has the effect of compressing all marine life together into a thin layer, so you have the attaching animals such as corals, sponges and sea lilies, the burrowing and crawling animals, such as worms, sea cucumbers, brittle stars, star fish, crabs and sea spiders, as well as the swimming animals such as fish – ...
Beside the above, What is the energy source for life at mid-ocean ridges?. This paper estimates natural hydrogen production by various geological processes and its ultimate fate in young oceanic crust near the Mid-Ocean Ridge (MOR). Hydrogen is an important source of energy for microbes living beneath the seafloor.
Also to know, What is responsible for mid-ocean ridges?
Mid-ocean ridges occur along divergent plate boundaries, where new ocean floor is created as the Earth's tectonic plates spread apart. As the plates separate, molten rock rises to the seafloor, producing enormous volcanic eruptions of basalt.
What is the main stress at the mid-ocean ridges?
1) plates spread apart
Tensional (stretching) stresses are apparent at the midocean ridges because the newly forming ocean crust is broken by a series of normal faults. Normal faults occur where the crust is being stretched. So the crust is being pulled apart at the midocean ridges (not forced apart).
Mid-ocean ridges form where two tectonic plates are pulling apart, also called seafloor spreading. ... The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which is spreading one to two inches a year, along with the East Pacific Rise, which is spreading two to six inches a year, are two examples of very long mid-ocean ridges.
There are two processes, ridge-push and slab-pull, thought to be responsible for the spreading seen at mid-ocean ridges, and there is some uncertainty as to which is dominant. Ridge-push occurs when the weight of the ridge pushes the rest of the tectonic plate away from the ridge, often towards a subduction zone.
Volcanism. Most crust in the ocean basins is less than 200 million years old, which is much younger than the 4.54 billion year age of the Earth.
Mid-ocean ridges. The global mid-ocean ridge system is the largest single volcanic feature on the Earth, encircling it like the seams of a baseball. ... The mid-ocean ridge consists of thousands of individual volcanoes or volcanic ridge segments which periodically erupt.
The greatest area of mid-ocean ridges occurs in the South Pacific Ocean where this feature type covers an area of 1,868,490 km2. The mid-ocean ridges are the Earth's largest volcanic system, accounting for more than 75% of all volcanic activity on the planet.
Most of the sulfur comes from the Earth's interior; a small portion (less than 15 percent) is produced by chemical reaction of the sulfate (SO4) present in the sea water. Thus, the energy source that sustains this deep-ocean ecosystem is not sunlight but rather the energy from chemical reaction (chemosynthesis).
Seafloor spreading occurs along mid-ocean ridges—large mountain ranges rising from the ocean floor. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, for instance, separates the North American plate from the Eurasian plate, and the South American plate from the African plate.
: an elevated region with a central valley on an ocean floor at the boundary between two diverging tectonic plates where new crust forms from upwelling magma.
Running along the top of this chain of mountains is a deep crack, called a rift valley. It is here that new ocean floor is continuously created. As the two sides of the mountain move away from each other, magma wells up from the Earth's interior.
Over 300 endemic species have been found near the vents, including corals, clams, shrimps, crabs and the now famous giant, red-tipped tubeworms, 4 m tall creatures that flourish in waters close to the hot springs.
Hydrothermal vents are like geysers, or hot springs, on the ocean floor. Along mid-ocean ridges where tectonic plates spread apart, magma rises and cools to form new crust and volcanic mountain chains. Seawater circulates deep in the ocean's crust and becomes super-heated by hot magma.
Characteristics of submarine basaltic eruptions
MID-OCEAN RIDGES, NEAR-RIDGE SEAMOUNTS, HOT SPOT VOLCANOES, CALIFORNIA MARGIN SEAMOUNTS – Basaltic volcanism in the deep oceans has long been thought to consist of quietly effusive discharge of lava to form pillow, lobate, and sheet flows.
The material that erupts at spreading centers along the mid-ocean ridge is primarily basalt, the most common rock on Earth.
When enough magma builds up in the magma chamber, it forces its way up to the surface and erupts, often causing volcanic eruptions. In the ocean, volcanoes erupt along cracks that are opened in the ocean floor by the spreading of two plates called a mid-ocean ridge .
The Ridge is named after him, and the name was recognized in April 1987 by SCUFN (under that body's old name, the Sub-Committee on Geographical Names and Nomenclature of Ocean Bottom Features). The ridge is the slowest known spreading ridge on earth, with a rate of less than one centimeter per year.
The mid-ocean ridge system is an example of a divergent (rather than a convergent or transform) plate boundary. ... The mid-ocean ridge system has been understood only since the development and acceptance of plate tectonic theory in the 1960s.
This ridge system includes the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge, Carlsberg Ridge, Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, and the East Pacific Rise with its related features, including the Chile Rise, Galapagos Rift Zone, Gorda Rise, and Juan de Fuca Ridge.
Mid-ocean ridges are geologically important because they occur along the kind of plate boundary where new ocean floor is created as the plates spread apart. Thus the mid-ocean ridge is also known as a "spreading center" or a "divergent plate boundary." The plates spread apart at rates of 1 cm to 20 cm per year.
The mid-ocean ridge is formed where two tectonic plates meet under the ocean. This divergent boundary creates mountains, valleys like the famous rift valley, volcanoes, and sometimes earthquakes. It stretches all around the Earth, is home to many strange animals, and still has a lot to be explored.
The mid-ocean ridge is two chains of mountains separated by a large depression that form at a spreading center. Sitting astride the mid-ocean ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean, Iceland is volcanically one of the most dynamic parts of the Earth's surface.